Description: This investigation assumes that discrimination plays a vital role in shaping inter-ethnic relations and explores discrimination against Muslims in Europe. The different experiences and perceptions of discrimination are related to the different histories of immigration in European countries, the different political arrangements for Muslims in Europe, the participation in structure and culture of the receiving societies, and — especially since the attacks on September 11 , 2001 in the US — th the perception of Muslims in European cities. Considering the efforts by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) as a top-down method, the complementary approach is to examine the victim’s perspective in a bottom-up method and study the perceptions of those who suffer discrimination. The sample for this pilot study consists of Turkish Muslims from Berlin (n=225), Bangladeshi Muslims from London (n=135) and Moroccan Muslims from Madrid (n=203) who were interviewed between July and December, 2004. The results indicate that Turkish and Moroccan Muslims comparatively often said that they belong to a minority that is discriminated against. Bangladeshi Muslims regarded themselves significantly less often discriminated against, though a more detailed analysis reveals that significant numbers of younger Bangladeshi Muslims often perceived themselves as belonging to a minority that is subject to discrimination. In addition, the study examines factors that lead to an increase in perceived discrimination. Results from a logistic regression analysis indicate that everyday experiences such as being stopped by the police, verbal attacks, or disrespectful treatment in public particularly increase the likelihood to say that one belongs to a minority that is discriminated against.
Publication Date: 2007